2b) Development is a system of interrelated social change
Development is a process resulting from the integraton of
a number of elements, especially
- goals based on existing values,
- resources, natural as well as human,
- available technology,
- forms of socio-political organization.
These elements and their components are integrated in a
system in which the elements-are closely interrelated, i.e.,
if one element changes, the whole system changes.
We can illustrate this by an example from the agricultural
sector: if we want to-increase productivity in agriculture,
the change is not brought about by the mere-application of
new seeds and fertilizer.
The implementation of a new technology may require new forms
of social organization such as the grouping of peasants in
peasant's associations to allow the distribution of inputs,
and instructions as to their applicatin.
The continuous training efforts may affect peasant values,
and, subsequently, goals. If our plan is successful, peasants
may change their cropping patterns in favour of crops which
proved more profitable. This has effects on other parts of
the farm, and may, for instance, cause a reduction of animal
husbandry. If the proceeds of animal husbandry belong traditionally
to the women, as in some societies, this affects the internal
relations of the family. We may, however, come to the conclusion
that the new technology cannot be applied without a change
in the land tenure system. A change in land tenure affects
in turn the power structure and may change the goal-setters
in the society and, thus, the relevant goals. This example
could be elaborated further. It all results in the recognition
that the system approach reflects most closely the development
process, and projects and programmes aiming at one isolated
element of the system are dysfunctional. It is true that it
often is very difficult to quantify the influence of individual
elements. This, however, must not prevent from understanding
development as a system of interrelated changes which requires
integrated instead of isolated measures.