1.3.1 Sociological Explanation of Socioeconomic Change
One of the earliest and widely discussed concept is WEBER's
(32) treatise "Protestant Ethics and the Spirit of Capitalism"
in which he combines Psychological & Sociological variables
with economic development. Because of its determination of
the value systems of societies, he put primary importance
on religion. According to Weber, the Protestant religion was
a precondition for capitalistic development for two reasons:
Protestant ethics led to an ascetic life style which, instead
of advocating affluence, reinvested the proceeds. As well,
it is the basis of rationalism and goal achievement behaviour.
While a value system which motivates economic development
can hardly be limited to Protestantism Weber's stress on values
and the resulting motivation influenced later thought.
In more recent times, PARSONS (21) and SMELSER (31) explained
economic development as a result of tension and unrest in
societies. If a traditional undifferentiated society experiences
economic growth and economic differentiation as a result of
external inputs, this leads to unrest. Frustration of groups
of the population not & participating and gaining generates
further differentiation and growth, and these small steps
happen within relatively short times.
McCLELLAND (16) sees the cause of underdevelopment in the
absence of achievement motivation. The desire to do well to
attain an inner feeling of personal accomplishment is the
pre-requisite for innovative activity.