1.3.1 Sociological Explanation of Socioeconomic Change

One of the earliest and widely discussed concept is WEBER's (32) treatise "Protestant Ethics and the Spirit of Capitalism" in which he combines Psychological & Sociological variables with economic development. Because of its determination of the value systems of societies, he put primary importance on religion. According to Weber, the Protestant religion was a precondition for capitalistic development for two reasons: Protestant ethics led to an ascetic life style which, instead of advocating affluence, reinvested the proceeds. As well, it is the basis of rationalism and goal achievement behaviour. While a value system which motivates economic development can hardly be limited to Protestantism Weber's stress on values and the resulting motivation influenced later thought.

In more recent times, PARSONS (21) and SMELSER (31) explained economic development as a result of tension and unrest in societies. If a traditional undifferentiated society experiences economic growth and economic differentiation as a result of external inputs, this leads to unrest. Frustration of groups of the population not & participating and gaining generates further differentiation and growth, and these small steps happen within relatively short times.

McCLELLAND (16) sees the cause of underdevelopment in the absence of achievement motivation. The desire to do well to attain an inner feeling of personal accomplishment is the pre-requisite for innovative activity.