1.3.2 Theory of Social Change
Following McClelland's concept that a level of development
is correlated with achievement motivation, Hagen tried to
explain why this achievement motivation varies between societies
and their classes and strata. He argues that in traditional
societies the status of individuals is fixed. Children learn
to act according to established norms, and deviations (initiative
!) are punished. If by external influences a new group gains
power, the status of the old elite is challenged and weakened.
The insecurity and frustration leads to changed behaviour
which has consequences on the family structure. Children tend
to become dissatisfied with the society and readily accept
new values. In time, they become innovative personalities.
If these persons become dominant groups in the society, this
causes economic development. Similar phenomena may happen
as far as the changing situation of marginal groups or minorities