Utilization of locally common strategies to ensure survival

For generations the inhabitants of such areas have developed skills in adapting to the rough environment and to secure lasting survival. These experiences have often been ignored and are in part little known. Research has mainly been done in the productive irrigated areas.

Traditional strategies include:

  • Production strategies
    (soil protection and improvement; measures for livestock and agricultural production; agri-forestry, household production; crafts; non-agricultural activities)
  • Optimization strategies
    (relations, coalitions, patronage; accepted dependence)
  • Exchange strategies
    (exchange of land, labour, capital; redistribution).
    Survival is secured by using all resources available and combining them through exchange and optimization. Especially the latter are vital to such marginal locations.