Emloyment Effects

Agrarian reform measures will result, all in all, in a slight increase in employment. The small size of the farms is generally accompanied by an intensification in cropping, an increase in animal husbandry, and an increase in the input of labour, especially manual labour. There will also possibly be an increase in trade, transportation, and services as a result of the rise in purchasing power. If the specific groups are studied separately, significant differences are found. First and foremost, there would be mainly more work for those who are already employed in other words, a decrease in underemployment. Breaking up large farms can, however, result in farm workers becoming unemployed. Likewise, tenants may lose their land if the owners start cultivating the remaining land they are allowed to keep, particularly if mechanization is introduced or increased at the same time. Some of the laid off workers and tenants will find employment again, even in better occupations, e. g., tractor drivers, pump attendants.

The transition to family farms brings with it more evenly distributed work that has to be done over the entire year as a result of more variety in cropping. It means, as well, more work for family members, especially women. The greatest effects on labour can be achieved through collectivization, and this particularly in the case that collectivization is not limited to the agricultural sector. For then,namely, the organizational preconditions are supplied for making use of the labour force in order to build up capital.