Family Farms

Family farms have, in most cases, approximately 10-30 acres of irrigated land which are cultivated by the family members-at the upper level with the help of one or two agricultural labourers not belonging to the family. Among the family farmers are quite a large number of tenants who have sufficient land, lease security, and power of decision in economic matters. This group represents the upper stratum of the village society, has sufficient income, and enjoys prestige on account of landed property and of its belonging to a distinguished caste. It controls the village policies, the local cooperatives, and similar institutions.Tthis group fully adopted the new technology regarding seed and fertilizers insofar as it had irrigated land. However, these people first began to participate one or two years after the small landlords. They had less access to seed and information; and because of their lower capacity to take risks, they wanted to wait and see what the results would be in practice. The high yield increases promptly convinced them. The further development is similar, in its main traits, to that experienced by the small landlords. They too bored tube wells, purchased tractors, and became well off. They often distinguished themselves by efficient and intensive agriculture.

However, in comparison, the results, here, were not so marked. The fact that had started at a later stage caused a lag of one to two years and did not allow them to achieve maximum prices in the time of seed shortage. They were also faced with much more problems than the larger landowners; with regard to obtaining a supply of seed and fertilizers on time, power cuts, and lack of water. The problem of obtaining loans prevented them for a while from purchasing tractors.

On the other hand, they could make up for some loss. Their family relationships with the owners of small plots resulted in their being especially successful when buying or renting additional land. The son was often a more careful tractor driver than an agricultural labourer would have been. Often, to utilize their tractors to capacity, they did the ploughing for their neighbours in return for payment and, thus, earned an additional cash income. Since their fields rarely adjoined but lay between the fields of other farmers, they could sell water from their wells. Especially in the beginning, as there was little competion, extremely high prices were paid for ploughing and water, and "tractor lords" and 'water lords" soon became commonly used terms.

Due to the Green Revolution, in which it had a share, this group became well off and was fully integrated in the market economy. Most of the group proved to be dynamic and flexible. It is true that commercial considerations played a role in the decision concerning the farms, but excesses caused by commercialization are rare as compared to the small landlords. However, they also went through a process in which quite a bit of differentiation took place, and a small group has remained at the old level.