2.3.3 Summary of the Implications
If an attempt is made to summarize the effects of the Green
Revolution on the land tenure system, the following developments
- The Green Revolution clearly favoured the economic situation
of the larger landowners and of the family farms, whereas
marginal farms, small tenants, and agricultural labourers
had little share or experienced a decline in their standars
of living. Thus, the polarization between those who have
sufficient land and the poor has been further intensified.
- Only irrigated regions benefitted from the Green Revolution
to a degree worth mentioning. It is true that, by constructing
tube wells, it was possible to extend the irrigated area.
But the gap between these regions, which have always been
better of, and the arid regions has widened.
- In the irrigated regions, the young, better educated,
wealthy, and active farmers benefitted primarily from the
technological changes, whereas the rest participated to
a lesser extent. Whereas, formerly, agriculture was quite
uniform and marked by tradition, there now exists a great
disparity within it. Efficient and less successful farmers
achieve very different economic results.
- The new class of progressive farmers replaced the former
feudal landlords as the central power in the country. Their
economic power gave them great influence in political matters
as well. Their close relationships with the administration
and the military helped them. They occupy the majority of
seats in parliament and thus make sure that the agrarian
policy which is advantageous for them is further pursued.
- The attitude of the new leading class towards land and
agriculture is completely different from that of the former
feudal landlords. For them, land is a farm input and agriculture
a lucrative business. This commercial attitude corresponds
to the labour relationships based on contract instead of
tradition and concern.
- Thus, the common interest in agriculture as formerly
shared between the classes even if it was one sided was
abolished. The classes now compete with each other. Polarization
has become more pronounced and, in many areas, this already
found vent in unrest. The relationships are much more unstable