2.3.3 Summary of the Implications

If an attempt is made to summarize the effects of the Green Revolution on the land tenure system, the following developments become evident:

  • The Green Revolution clearly favoured the economic situation of the larger landowners and of the family farms, whereas marginal farms, small tenants, and agricultural labourers had little share or experienced a decline in their standars of living. Thus, the polarization between those who have sufficient land and the poor has been further intensified.
  • Only irrigated regions benefitted from the Green Revolution to a degree worth mentioning. It is true that, by constructing tube wells, it was possible to extend the irrigated area. But the gap between these regions, which have always been better of, and the arid regions has widened.
  • In the irrigated regions, the young, better educated, wealthy, and active farmers benefitted primarily from the technological changes, whereas the rest participated to a lesser extent. Whereas, formerly, agriculture was quite uniform and marked by tradition, there now exists a great disparity within it. Efficient and less successful farmers achieve very different economic results.
  • The new class of progressive farmers replaced the former feudal landlords as the central power in the country. Their economic power gave them great influence in political matters as well. Their close relationships with the administration and the military helped them. They occupy the majority of seats in parliament and thus make sure that the agrarian policy which is advantageous for them is further pursued.
  • The attitude of the new leading class towards land and agriculture is completely different from that of the former feudal landlords. For them, land is a farm input and agriculture a lucrative business. This commercial attitude corresponds to the labour relationships based on contract instead of tradition and concern.
  • Thus, the common interest in agriculture as formerly shared between the classes even if it was one sided was abolished. The classes now compete with each other. Polarization has become more pronounced and, in many areas, this already found vent in unrest. The relationships are much more unstable than formerly.