188.8.131.52 Access to Land, Water and Other Resources
For the countries in which it is necessary to redistribute
landed property, it is suggested that maximum ceilings for
land be fixed by law. When distributing land, the weakest
groups of the population should be taken into consideration
in particular, and cooperatives should be established so that
the desired improvements in productivity actually occur.
Rapid redistribution is the best protection against the reform
being prevented. After redistribution has taken place, the
associations protect the new farmers from landed property
becoming concentrated once more and exploitation occurring
again. For all the countries, tenancy and wage regulations
are considered necessary. In order to do this, tenants should
be registered; the governments should determine and enforce
maximum land ceilings and control leasing, give the tenants
access to loans and extension services, and encourage them
to make investments. It is recommended that tenants associations
control the measures implemented for improving the conditions
of tenancy. Similarly, minimum wages should also be fixed
for agricultural labourers and necessary measures introduced
to protect them against exploitation.
In regions where land is owned communally, it is important
to stop the trend of land being turned into private property
in the hands of only a few people and especially safeguard
the rights of small cultivators gall nomads. Existing systems
which can fulfil the function of controlling the right of
common usage of land and water should be maintained and developed.
Grazing areas should be efficiently utilized in such a way
that the yield remains in the hands of the herdsmen.
If the efficiency of the agricultural production is hindered
by the farms being fractioned and parcelled into too small
units, measures should be taken to amalgamate them. These
should be combined with village and regional development measures
in order to supply jobs to those who have been displaced.
Collective forms of land use of greatly varying types can
help to propagate the benefits drawn from the improvement
of the infrastructure, research, employment, the supply of
inputs, an increased capabilities.
The control and management of forest land, waste land, an
water are to be regulated insuch a way that the public interest
and especially environmental protection are upheld, while,
at the same time, taking the legitimate interests of the local
communities into consideration. The population should be made
aware of the danger of erosion and informed about its control.
The preservation of fishing grounds should be ensured by using
them and maintaining them properly with the participation
of local persons.
Wherever unutilized land is available, it should be used
to settle people looking for land. By creating infrastructure
and extension services, the governments should ensure the
permanent success of such measures. Thereby, settlement projects
should be regarded as a supplement to, and not a substitute
for, measures of agrarian reform.
In some countries, there is considerable inequality among
the various regions. The governments should help level out
the differences between poor and rich, as well as between
the regions with a good and a poor infrastructure by means
of investment programmes. Within this framework, it is important
that development programmes be drawn up for integrating towns
and their rural environment.